A diagnosis of high cholesterol can be intimidating, but there is a lot you can do to control this condition. In addition to modifying your diet and upping your exercise, the addition of a HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor â€” a class of drugs commonly called â€œstatinsâ€ â€” can safely and effectively lower your cholesterol. (HMG-CoA Reductase helps our liver produce cholesterol; when the chemical is inhibited, the amount of cholesterol is correspondingly reduced.) For people with heart disease, statins can lower the risk of a cardiac event and subsequent death. If you and your doctor have determined that you need a statin, how can you pick the right statin for your needs?
There are six statins on the market: atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin. They differ in their ability to reduce cholesterol, and they also differ in their rates of reducing heart attacks. Their costs are also quite different â€” and since most people take statins for a long time, the costs add up over the years. With all of these variables, choosing the right statin for you can be complex.
All statins are capable of lowering LDL (â€œbadâ€) cholesterol and triglycerides, and raising HDL (â€œgoodâ€) cholesterol. The statins do differ in how effectively they can do this, and it is highly dose-dependent. Says Drug Digest:
If the needed LDL-C reduction is up to 35-36%, any of the statins should be acceptable choices for therapy. For a desired reduction of LDL-C greater than 42%, simvastatin (Zocor), atorvastatin (Lipitor), or rosuvastatin (Crestor) would be needed.
Indeed, the best-known statins are Crestor, Lipitor, and Zocor (quite probably because they have the greatest effect on cholesterol levels). The latter two are also endorsed by Consumer Reports. Taking evidence for effectiveness, safety, and cost into account, the publication rated both of these statins as â€œConsumer Reports Best Buy Drugs.â€ They recommend:
â€¢ Generic simvastatin (20mg or 40 mg) â€” if you need 30% or greater LDL reduction and/or have heart disease or diabetes, or if you have had a heart attack or have acute coronary syndrome and your LDL level is not highly elevated.
â€¢ Atorvastatin (Lipitor) (40mg or 80mg) â€” if you have had a heart attack or have acute coronary syndrome and your LDL is highly elevated; use for two years and then reconfirm need or switch to generic simvastatin.
Charts on Drug Digest have some great comparisons. For instance, they show that Lipitor (10-80 mg.) can reduce total cholesterol by 25-45%, while Zocor (5-80 mg.) can reduce the same numbers by 19-36%, and Crestor (5-40 mg.) can reduce it by 33-46%. As for lowering HDL, Lipitor can offer reduction of 5-9%, Zocor lessens HDL by 8-16%, and Crestor lowers these numbers by 8-14%. As you can see, choosing the proper statin has a lot to do with which numbers (Total Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, or triglycerides) you are trying to effect.
A final consideration is that last year there was reporting on an observational study done by Pfizer that suggested that there were certain benefits to using Lipitor over Crestor. However, one must keep in mind that Pfizer conducted the study, and they are the manufacturer of Lipitor, and they are defending this drug against Merck’s Zocor product, which is now available in a generic formula. Here is the information as presented by The Wall Street Journal:
An analysis, published in the latest Clinical Therapeutics Journal, mined a large database of health-care records and found that patients taking Lipitor had a 12% lower risk of a cardiovascular event than those on simvastatin, the generic name for Zocor. The patients on Lipitor had a 15% lower risk of having a heart attack.
So-called observational studies like this one that look at data after the fact arenâ€™t as powerful as prospective clinical trials. Jack Tu, a cardiologist who specializes in outcomes research at Canadaâ€™s Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, says the latest Pfizer study didnâ€™t take into account factors that could predispose a patient to heart problems, such as smoking and cholesterol levels. â€œJust on this alone, you wouldnâ€™t recommend that everyone should switch onto Lipitor,â€ he says.
Still, Pfizer hopes that doctors will take notice. â€œWeâ€™ve done two rather large observational studies and patients have a lower risk of cardiovascular events on Lipitor [compared with] simvastatin,â€ says Susan Shiff, Pfizerâ€™s team leader for cardiovascular outcomes. â€œDoctors need to factor this into discussions with patients.â€
You should definitely discuss with your physician which statin is right for you. In general, the best plan is to take the LOWEST dose of a statin that gets you to your target level for cholesterol. Overly large doses can be harmful to your liver and to your muscles. If you experience muscle aches and pains when taking a statin, contact your doctor immediately.
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